The Highs and Lows of Caffeine
Can You Be Addicted to Caffeine?
- Withdrawal symptoms, such as headache, fatigue, and depression
- Caffeine consumption despite causing physical or psychological problems or making them worse
- Unsuccessful attempts to cut back or control caffeine intake
- Tolerance to caffeine—not getting the desired effect with typical consumption or the need to drink more to get the desired effect
Is It a Habit Worth Breaking?
Who Should Keep Caffeine in Check?
Are You Contemplating Quitting?
A Special Note for Smokers
Caffeine in Common Products
|Beverages, Food, and Over-the-Counter Medicine||
|Coffee (12 oz cup), instant||148|
|Starbucks brewed coffee (grande—16 oz)||330|
|Dunkin’ Donuts coffee (medium—14 oz)||178|
|Starbucks Latte (grande—16 oz, 2 shots of espresso)||150|
|Starbucks Espresso, solo (1 oz)||75|
|Decaffeinated coffee (8 oz cup), brewed or instant||3-12|
|Tea (8 oz cup), brewed, black, steeped for 3 minutes||30-80|
|Instant iced tea (8 oz glass)||10-50|
|Starbucks Tazo Chai Tea Latte (grande—16 oz)||95|
|Snapple Lemon Tea (16 oz)||42|
|Arizona Iced Tea (20 oz)||38|
|Soft Drinks (12 oz)|
|Monster Energy (16 oz)||160|
|5-hour Energy (1.9 oz)||200|
|Rockstar (16 oz)||160|
|Red Bull (8.3 oz)||80|
|SoBe Power Fruit Punch (20 oz)||77|
|AMP Energy Boost Original (16 oz)||142|
|Starbucks hot chocolate (grande—16 oz cup)||25|
|Hershey's chocolate lowfat milk (12 oz bottle)||2|
|Hershey's Chocolate Bar (1.6 oz)||9|
|Hershey's Special Dark Bar (1.5 oz)||18|
|Hershey's Kisses (9 pieces)||9|
|Anacin (2 tablets)||64|
|Excedrin Migraine (2 tablets)||130|
|No-Doz, Vivarin (1 caplet)||200|
Food Insight International Food Information Council http://www.ific.org
National Coffee Association USA http://www.ncausa.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Dietitians of Canada http://www.dietitians.ca
Agardh EE, Carlsson S, et al. Coffee consumption, type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in Swedish men and women. J Intern Med. 2004;255(6):645-652
Benowitz NL, Hall SM, et al. Persistent increase in caffeine concentrations in people who stop smoking. BMJ. 1989;298:1075-1076.
Brown, CR, Jacob P 3rd, et al. Changes in rate and pattern of caffeine metabolism after cigarette abstinence. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1988 May;43(5):488-91.
CFSAN Adverse Event Reporting System Voluntary and Mandatory Reports on 5-Hour Energy, Monster Energy, and Rockstar Energy Drink January 1, 2004 through October 23, 2012. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AboutFDA/CentersOffices/OfficeofFoods/CFSAN/CFSANFOIAElectronicReadingRoom/UCM328270.pdf. Accessed February 3, 2015.
Caffeine. University of Michigan's University Health Services website. Available at: http://www.uhs.umich.edu/caffeine. Accessed February 3, 2015.
Caffeine content. Caffeine informer website. Available at: http://www.caffeineinformer.com. Accessed February 3, 2015.
Caffeine content of food and drugs. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Available at: http://www.cspinet.org/new/cafchart.htm. Updated November 2014. Accessed February 3, 2015.
Caffeine dependence. Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center website. Available at: http://www.caffeinedependence.org/caffeine%5Fdependence.html. Accessed February 3, 2015.
Caffeine intake during pregnancy. American Pregnancy Association website. Available at: http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-health/caffeine-during-pregnancy. Updated April 2014. Accessed February 3, 2015.
Dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 6, 2015. Accessed February 3, 2015.
Functional dyspepsia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated October 27, 2014. Accessed February 3, 2015.
Jahanfar S, Sharifah H. Effects of restricted caffeine intake by mother on fetal, neonatal and pregnancy outcome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(2):CD006965.
Leviton A, Allred EN. Correlates of decaffeinated coffee choice. Epidemiology. 1994;5:537-540.
Medication and drug exposure in pregnancy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 23, 2015. Accessed February 3, 2015.
Oei SG, Vosters RP, et al. Fetal arrhythmia caused by excessive intake of caffeine by pregnant women. BMJ.1989;298:1075-1076.
Pennington J. Bowes & Church's Food Values of Portions Commonly Used. 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott Company; 1994:381-383.
Puccio EM, McPhillips JB, et al. Clustering of atherogenic behaviors in coffee drinkers. Am J Public Health. 1990;80(11):1310-1313.
Questions and answers about energy drinks and health. International Food Information Center website. Available at: http://www.foodinsight.org/articles/questions-and-answers-about-energy-drinks-and-health. Updated May 31, 2011. Accessed February 3, 2015.
Schwartz, BS, Stewart, et al. Epidemiology of tension-type headache. JAMA. 1998;279:381-383.
Sigmon S, Herning R, et al. Caffeine withdrawal, acute effects, tolerance, and absence of net beneficial effects of chronic administration. Pyschopharmacology (Berl). 2009;204(4):573-585.
Smith B, Wingard DL, et al. Does coffee consumption reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose? Diabetes Care. 2006;29(11):2385-2390.
Strain EC, Mumford GK, et al. Caffeine dependence syndrome. JAMA. 1994;272:1043-1048.
van Dam R, Willett W, et al. Coffee, caffeine, and risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(2):398-403.
Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, et al. Coffee consumption and coronary heart disease in women: a ten-year follow-up. JAMA. 1996;275:458-462.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 02/2015 -
- Update Date: 02/03/2015 -